In an attempt to bring an end to years of fighting, the US government formed the Indian Peace Commission to investigate the grievances of the Plains Indians. The commission concluded that the fighting had been entirely preventable and that the US government and its representatives had failed to fulfil its legal obligations and to treat the Native Americans with honesty.
In October 1867, Major Elliot and tribal chiefs met at Medicine Lodge, a traditional Indian council site and on the 21st October, a treaty was signed with the Kiowa and Comanche tribes and later with the Kiowa-Apache. The third treaty was signed with the Cheyenne and Arapaho on the 28th.
By the end of 1890, the US government's subjugation of the Native American peoples was virtually complete with the remnants of the once proud tribes herded into reservations located on poor land and relying on government handouts for survival.
Despite this, the white settlers still remained fearful of the Indians; these sentiments worsened by the endless production of Western fiction and the many Wild West shows depicting the Indians as bloodthirsty savages. The army too, stationed in forts near the reservations, where legends of earlier Indian atrocities were embroidered and enlarged, remained trigger happy and ready to crush any remaining signs of resistance.
There are times when a famous person's life and exploits are so embroidered by writers and historians that it difficult to get to the true story. Such a man was the Lakota Indian warrior Crazy Horse, who fought so hard to hold back the invasion of European settlers into his people's lands which at the time stretched from Missouri to the Bighorn Mountains of Dakota.
Hugh Glass was born in Pennsylvania to Irish parents in 1783. Little is known of his early life, but various legends tell of him being a sailor, a pirate and an honorary Pawnee Indian.
In 1822, Glass responded to an item in the Missouri Gazette and Public Advisor, placed by General William Ashley, calling for a corps of 100 men to “Ascend the River Missouri” as part of a fur trading venture to find new trapping routes. He had been living in the western wilderness for some years and was much experienced in hunting and trapping.