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A Matter of Hatred: The Myth of Hannibal's Oath

Did the young Hannibal swear an oath of hatred? Hannibal’s hatred of Rome is so well known that it has become proverbial and allusions to it abound in literature. How many times have we read that a character was possessed of “a hatred like Hannibal’s” or that “he hated with the intensity of Hannibal”? When hyperbole is sought, as in the description of Captain Ahab’s feelings toward the great white whale, we read that “his hatred was greater than Hannibal’s.” But is there actually any factual basis for this Hannibalic stereotype?

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The Fate of Wales under Edward I

Despite a bitter campaign to preserve Welsh independence, Llywelyin and David were finally killed. The Welsh would have to wait for more than 100 years before Glendower made a fresh claim for the principality.

Edward arrived back in England from his crusade in August 1274, he had been proclaimed king on the death of his father without opposition reflecting the regard for his prowess and renown as a warrior, called in his time “the best lance in the world”. He was crowned in 1274 at Westminster Abbey.

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Kohima and Imphal

The battles of Kohima and Imphal became two of the greatest struggles of the Second World War, rivalling El Alamein and Stalingrad, though it still remains comparatively unknown. To the men who fought there however, it remains “The Battle”. If the Japanese had won, the road to India would have lain wide open before them.

The Battles of Kohima and Imphal became the turning points in the Japanese attempt to invade India and were fought in the Assam region on the Indo-Burmese border between 8th March and 3rd July 1944.

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Edward The Confessor

First Great Seal of Edward the Confessor Edward was born in 1003AD in Islip, Oxfordshire, the son of Ethelred and Emma of Normandy. He was just ten years old when he was sent to Normandy with his brother Alfred to escape the Danish invasion. While there, he became interested in religion and it was this piety, plus reportedly attending daily confession that earned him the title “Confessor”. He was not a worldly or decisive man and is considered weak and uncertain by some historians. He did however forge strong links between the old English church and Rome, sending bishops to Pope Leo IX’s councils in 1049 and 1050AD.

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Bosworth Field

The Battle of Bosworth Field as depicted by Philip James de Loutherbourg (1740–1812) History has been less than kind to Richard who had for many years been a loyal supporter of his brother Edward. What caused him to seek the throne for himself we shall never know, but Lord Stanley’s treachery finally ended his brief reign.

Richard began his bid for the throne when he lodged the young King Edward in the Tower which was at the time, a royal residence as well as a fortress “for his safety” and the business of the realm continued with royal writs now being issued under the seal of Edward V and countersigned by Richard with his motto “Loyeaulte me lie”, until suddenly stopping on the 8th of June. On the 16th June, postponement of the coronation, scheduled for 22nd June was announced and a new date set for the 9th November.

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The Battle of Stamford Bridge

Every schoolboy knows of Harold’s defeat at Hastings. How different that outcome might have been had Harold not been distracted and weakened by Hardrada’s invasion and Tostig’s treachery.

While much has been written about the King Harold’s struggle to repel the Norman invaders at Hastings on the 14th of October 1066, less attention has been given to an equally important battle fought by him and his forces just nineteen days earlier at Stamford Bridge in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

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